Climate Change & Disaster Risk Reduction
Ghana has taken significant steps towards the creation of a solid policy framework to tackle climate change. Following the adoption of the National Climate Change Policy in 2013, the Government of Ghana (GoG) finalised the National Climate Change Policy Strategies in 2014. These constitute a series of concrete programmes and projects in various sectors contributing to or being affected by climate change.
In 2015, GoG focused on the development of Ghana’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in view of the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP) of UNFCCC that met in Paris for the UN Climate Change Conference to agree on a new global climate agreement. Ghana has taken a step forward by the recent ratification of the INDC. The INDC commits Ghana to reduce its carbon emissions by 15% unconditionally by 2030 compared to the business as usual scenario (with national resources), and an additional 30% conditionally (with external support).
Ghana’s focus is now on two critical issues: ensuring a coordinated implementation of the National Climate Change policy framework, and mobilising sufficient resources to finance it (USD 22.6 billion to be mobilised between 2020 and 2030, according to the INDC).
Energy is the main sector targeted to reduce Ghana’s contribution to climate change. In both 2014 and 2015, the country was affected by irregular energy supply (popularly known as dumsor) which severely affected the daily lives of Ghanaians and economic activities in general. According to the Energy Commission, the share of renewable energy (excluding large hydro) in the electricity generation mix is still around 1%, far below the policy goal to increase the modern forms of renewable energy (excluding large hydro) in the electricity generation mix to 10% by 2020.
However, the GoG has been putting significant efforts into promoting renewable energy investments through policies and regulations. After the feed-in-tariffs published in 2014, the net metering code was piloted in 2015, and the President announced a rooftop solar programme that will aim at the installation of 200,000 solar home systems.
Furthermore, Parliament passed the National Disaster Management Organisation (NADMO) Bill 2015 to address weaknesses in disaster management in the country. The Bill is to empower NADMO in its mandate to ensure a citizenry participatory approach to disaster management and to motivate people to act responsibly to prevent or mitigate the effects of disaster.